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脑·智前沿交叉论坛 2017第一场

发布时间:2017-02-22浏览量:538

报 告  人:  Trevor W. Robbins CBE FRS FMedSci

报告人所在单位:英国剑桥大学心理系

简介:英国皇家科学院及医学院两院院士,英国剑桥大学认知科学与实验心理学教授,行为与临床神经科学研究所主任,心理系系主任,英国神经科学学会前主席,Science编委。在认知神经科学、行为神经科学以及精神药理学领域,发表论文800余篇,被ISI Web of Science评为神经科学领域引用次数最多的作者之一。

报告题目一: The Translational Neuropsychopharmacology of Cognitive Enhancement

报告日期: 2017-3-16 星期四

报告时间: 10:00

报告地点: 科技楼多功能厅

报告摘要:

Problems of translating discoveries in preclinical neuroscience to clinical applications are described in the context of remediating cognitive deficits in a range of disorders, including Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, schizophrenia, depression, ADHD and addiction.  I will describe the special utility of the CANTAB computerised neuropsychological battery for the early detection of cognitive deficits in humans and for parallel cross-species studies in animal models. I will illustrate the important concept of validation of animal models by back-translation and describe several successful examples of this taken from studies of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and ADHD. I will illustrate the difficulties of achieving cognitive enhancement without parallel cognitive costs with examples taken from Parkinson’s disease. I will also show how a dimensional approach to psychiatric symptoms, for example, in the treatment of impulsivity, might have utility across several disorders as distinct as ADHD, addiction and Parkinson’s disease.

References:

Cools, R., Barker, R., Sahakian, B.J., Robbins, T.W. (2001) Enhanced or impaired cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease as a function of dopaminergic  medication and task demands.   Cerebral Cortex, 11,1136-1143.

Turner,  D.C.,  Clark,  L., Pomarol-Clotet,  E., McKenna,  P., Robbins,  T.W.  &  Sahakian,  B.J.  (2004) Modafinil  improves  cognition  and  attentional  set  shifting  in  patients  with  chronic  schizophrenia.Neuropsychopharmacology, 29, 1363-1373

Robbins TW, Cools R. (2014) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson’s disease: a cognitive neuroscience perspective.  Movement Disorders, 29(5), 597-607.

Barnett, J, Sahakian, BJ, Robbins, T.W. (2016) The Paired Associate  Learning (PAL) Test: 30 years of CANTAB Translational Neuroscience From Laboratory to Bedside in Dementia Research. In: Translational Neuropsychopharmacology Ed. by TW Robbins & BJ Sahakian, Springer-Verlag,

Bari, A. & Robbins, T.W. (2011) Animal models of ADHD.  Current Topics in Behavioural Neuroscience, 7, 149-185.

Supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator grant to TWR: 104631Z/14/Z

报告题目二:Fractionating Impulsivity: Neural and Neuropsychiatric Implications

报告日期: 2017-3-18 星期六

报告时间:  10:00

报告地点:  光华东主楼1501

报告摘要:

Impulsivity is the tendency to act prematurely without foresight. A conceptual analysis of this construct in behavioural and neurobiological terms, based on evidence from both animal and human studies, suggests that there are several dissociable forms of impulsivity. One form of impulsivity may depend on motivational factors, another on motor or response disinhibition. The cortico-striatal substrates of these forms appear distinct, on the basis of lesion and neuropharmacological evidence. However, certain drugs remediate both forms of impulsivity, suggesting that some common neurochemical substrates.  A possible role for impulsivity in addiction in humans is unclear and animal studies help to resolve issues of causality. I will review a rat model of impulsivity based on premature responding in the 5-choice serial reaction time task and a more detailed characterization of this phenotype in neurobehavioral, neurochemical and genetic terms. Evidence will be surveyed that high impulsivity on this task precedes the escalation subsequently of cocaine self-administration behaviour, and also a tendency towards compulsive cocaine-seeking. These results indicate that the vulnerability to stimulant addiction may depend on an impulsivity endophenotype. Implications of these translational findings for substance abuse and other neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease will be considered.

References

Dalley, J.W., Everitt, B.J. & Robbins,  T.W. (2011) Impulsivity,  compulsivity,  and top-down  cognitive control.  Neuron, 69, 680-694

Ye, Z., Altena, E., Nombela, C., Housden, C.R., Maxwell, H., Rittman, T., Huddleston, C., Rae, C.L.,Regenthal, R., Sahakian, B.J., Barker, R.A., Robbins, T.W., Rowe, J.B. (2015) Improving response inhibition in Parkinson’s disease with atomoxetine.  Biological Psychiatry, 77(8), 740-8

Dalley JW and Robbins TW (2017) Fractionating impulsivity: Neuropsychiatric implications. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. In press

Supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator grant to TWR: 104631Z/14/Z

报告题目三:The Neural Basis of Compulsive Behaviour: Relevance to Addiction and OCD

报告日期: 2017-3-18 星期六

报告时间:  15:00

报告地点:  光华东主楼1501

报告摘要:

Compulsivity is the tendency to perseverate in maladaptive actions and is part of the symptomatic picture of drug addiction, eating disorders, Tourette’s syndrome and, prototypically, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This talk considers the overlap between compulsive behaviour in addiction and OCD, in terms of the hypothesis that compulsive behaviour arises as a consequence of a shift in balance between a goal-directed and habit based system in the brain, coupled with changes in control over behaviour from the ventral to the dorsal striatum and a loss of ‘top-down control’ from the prefrontal cortex.  Evidence is considered from experimental animal models, including the self-administration of drugs in rodents and attentional set-shifting and reversal leaning in marmoset monkeys. Comparisons are made with human patients, as well as their first degree relatives and healthy control participants using functional and structural brain imaging and psychopharmacology, in conjunction with cognitive testing.  Parallels and differences between addiction and OCD are considered and the implications considered for psychiatric classification and treatment.

References

Dalley, J.W., Everitt, B.J. & Robbins,  T.W. (2011) Impulsivity,  compulsivity,  and top-down  cognitive control.  Neuron, 69, 680-694

Robbins,   T.W.,   Gillan,   C.M.,   Smith,   D.G.,   de  Wit,   S.  &   Ersche,   K.D.   (2012)   Neurocognitive endophenoypes  of impulsivity  and compulsivity:  towards dimensional  psychiatry.   Trends in CognitiveSciences, 16, 81-91.

Gillan, C.M., Robbins, T.W. (2014) Goal-directed learning and obsessive-compulsive disorder.Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 369(1655). pii: 20130475.

Everitt, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (2016) Drug Addiction: Updating Actions to Habits to Compulsions Ten Years On.Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 23-50.

Supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator grant to TWR: 104631Z/14/Z